galois.Poly.equal_degree_factors(degree: int) list[Poly]

Factors the monic, square-free polynomial \(f(x)\) of degree \(rd\) into a product of \(r\) irreducible factors with degree \(d\).

degree: int

The degree \(d\) of each irreducible factor of \(f(x)\).


The list of \(r\) irreducible factors \(\{g_1(x), \dots, g_r(x)\}\) in lexicographical order.


ValueError – If \(f(x)\) is not monic, has degree 0, or is not square-free.


The Equal-Degree Factorization algorithm factors a square-free polynomial \(f(x)\) with degree \(rd\) into a product of \(r\) irreducible polynomials each with degree \(d\). This function implements the Cantor-Zassenhaus algorithm, which is probabilistic.

The Equal-Degree Factorization algorithm is often applied after the Distinct-Degree Factorization algorithm, see distinct_degree_factors(). A complete polynomial factorization is implemented in factors().



Factor a product of degree-1 irreducible polynomials over \(\mathrm{GF}(2)\).

In [1]: a = galois.Poly([1, 0]); a, a.is_irreducible()
Out[1]: (Poly(x, GF(2)), True)

In [2]: b = galois.Poly([1, 1]); b, b.is_irreducible()
Out[2]: (Poly(x + 1, GF(2)), True)

In [3]: f = a * b; f
Out[3]: Poly(x^2 + x, GF(2))

In [4]: f.equal_degree_factors(1)
Out[4]: [Poly(x, GF(2)), Poly(x + 1, GF(2))]

Factor a product of degree-3 irreducible polynomials over \(\mathrm{GF}(5)\).

In [5]: GF = galois.GF(5)

In [6]: a = galois.Poly([1, 0, 2, 1], field=GF); a, a.is_irreducible()
Out[6]: (Poly(x^3 + 2x + 1, GF(5)), True)

In [7]: b = galois.Poly([1, 4, 4, 4], field=GF); b, b.is_irreducible()
Out[7]: (Poly(x^3 + 4x^2 + 4x + 4, GF(5)), True)

In [8]: f = a * b; f
Out[8]: Poly(x^6 + 4x^5 + x^4 + 3x^3 + 2x^2 + 2x + 4, GF(5))

In [9]: f.equal_degree_factors(3)
Out[9]: [Poly(x^3 + 2x + 1, GF(5)), Poly(x^3 + 4x^2 + 4x + 4, GF(5))]